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NOTE: It is not to be inferred that the general types of multi-spectral Apparatus and Methods briefly introduced above and further disclosed in various portions of this document are limited solely to the purposes discussed.

They can be used more broadly for any situation, coding method, circumstance, purpose or system in which robust discrimination between subtly differing colors in any imaged scene is required and spectrally-filtered illumination sequences can be employed.

The emphasis in this document is on methods using single devices functioning as LAR-Readers. For example, one imager can be an IR sensitive camera or imaging array for the LOCATE function collaborating with a physically separate visible-light sensitive camera or imaging array. One can be a filtered or intensified device, the other a high frame rate imager or one capable of executing ROI options.

Image processing software known in the art for shape recognition, shape-warping, color boundary recognition etc can assist in this task. This task can also be facilitated by using images containing BOTH fixed Reference Markers in pre-determined locations in a venue combined with a LARcode's apparent size in an image to determine a relatively precise off-set correction for combining and aligning corresponding pixels in the IR and visible sensor images. Similar and related approaches to the above can take advantages of the recent commercial availability of devices featuring two complete cameras, each with its own lens, contained in a single camera body.

An available Dual Capture Shooting Mode allows simultaneous capture of two frames at different settings, one through each lens. Separate focal length, exposure, and color settings can be used for each. The device could then switch to devote one camera to shooting a wide-angle image while, at the same time, the other might be zoomed-in to capture an ROI portion of the image.

Methods and apparatus here disclosed enable a single as-built camera or other imager to function as a versatile LAR-Reader. The method uses either the built-in flash as supplied with the imager and assumed mounted near the LOS of the camera lens or another light source such as shown in FIGS. The purpose of the attenuation of the visible flash from the built-in Flash unit is to insure that returns from RR images in the scene are at non-blooming brightness levels.

The low-brightness flash levels which, in some embodiments can be made Adaptive via software or firmware as has been discussed above make LARcode LOCATE RRs in any given frame easy to distinguish while avoiding blooming.

With adequate general scene lighting or Flash fill-lighting from sources off-set from the imager LOS, the required LOCATE flash levels need not interfere with reliable reading of non-retro-reflecting LARcode color regions which are captured simultaneously. This is especially true when color reference standards are included on the LARcodes. These approaches have minimal impact on user-owned Type 1 Imagers and their convenience of use for general purposes.

Xenon unit. See, for instance, the example and further details shown in FIGS. If a camera or other imaging device such as a cell-phone, smart-phone, machine vision camera, video camera etc. See, for example, feature 26 in FIG. For simplicity, various options such as an in-plane 90 degree clock-wise rotation around lamp 24 are not shown. The trigger light can be conveyed via an optical fiber or can activate a photo diode or similar sensor coupled to the PLCM.

For example, FIG. The latter is equipped for some form of communications capability such as WI-FI etc. The accessorized imagers shown in FIGS. If covert or minimally detectable operation is required, other methods such as described in the following Section A. Note that where appropriate to the application, frame acquisition sequences using attenuated visible flashes from a camera's built-in Flash source, such as blocked built-in flash , for LOCATE RR Excitation can be interspersed e.

While the simple accessory shown in FIGS. This also applies to systems using one or more Webcams as described in Introductory Section A. The type 1 imager of FIG. Accessory product can be coupled to the phone and can include a power and control unit , RR light and scene light Somewhat similarly, the type 1 imager of FIG. Accessory product can be coupled to the camera using hot shoe Accessory product can include a scene light and RR light In one form, the camera and accessory product are communicably coupled to each other to allow control signals to pass from one to the other.

This causes images of RRs associated with LARcodes to have significantly higher luminance levels than the other portions of such frames. The method can be used with cameras with or without built-in IR Blocking filters. It can be triggered on almost every frame in certain applications, alternately, periodically or only on-cue in others. Deep Red short duration flashes, even if intense, tend to non-disturbing to the non-dark-adapted human eye, nevertheless, they can brightly reveal any RRs in an otherwise under-exposed image.

While the details such as obscuring but not deactivating the built-in flash can vary, Type 1 Imagers equipped with a PLCM 23 also can provide NIR or Deep Red functionality using one light source 24 or several with appropriate filters. For example, the PLCM can deliver sufficient energy to capture a rapid series of NIR or Deep Red flash exposures at rates faster than a usually slower rate limited by a camera's internal power supply's re-charge time.

Single pairs or other combinations of such images can be used for implementing several other concepts and systems some of which are set forth later in this document. Applications include but are not limited to LARcode-implemented activities in semi-darkened theaters, bars, restaurants etc.

Substantially covert codes which have low probability of being detected, even with flashlight inspection of a venue, can be composed of visually black patterns, regions, shapes or strips, etc. The combined areas therefore appear black under normal visible lighting. If a code is designed for Deep Red Reading, its presence can be slightly compromised in richly reddish ambient.

Codes of this type can be used, for example, as targets which are unknowingly occulted by intruders traversing sensitive areas thus causing some type of system response. Others can be closely mounted to the camera's LOS as discussed below.

This provides multiple sets of luminance gray-scale level intensity patterns from a given LARcode which are time-dependent and in sync with the different scene Illuminator On-Off sequences. As a result, multiple image data sets can be acquired which are uniquely dependent on the colors present in the LARcode and also in any sub-patterns if present.

Subtle color differences in LARcode code regions can thereby be detected and quantified. The availability of such multiple data sets also allows data noise to be reduced using known signal-processing techniques. In some instances, the source of ambient light can be fitted with a polarizer to reduce its effective intensity as seen by an imager equipped for the opposite polarization. Both members of a light source pair use the same type of color filter while the Imager is equipped to pass one OR the other type of polarization, but not both.

This technique can be useful in venues where potentially competing illumination levels from ambient un-polarized light sources can be controlled. As in section A. Some of the light sources can be displaced from the camera's LOS while others can be close to it and thus can excite RRs which can themselves optionally be colored or partially colored as discussed further in PART B.

The color camera's wavelength-dependent output response is the result of a combination of the color of a given LARcode Block or RR and the incident filter-modified transmission Illuminator spectrum weighted by the sensor's color response versus wavelength profiles typically 3 RGB channels rather than by a monochrome camera's single spectral sensitivity profile. This method is similar to that described in sections A.

This type of LARcode can also reduce the effects of ambient light in situations where multi-spectral LARcode methods and apparatus are used. For example, LARcode Illuminators shining more or less downward from above and near Readers similarly oriented can be used with LARcodes facing more-or-less upward as they are held or manipulated by users using a horizontal or somewhat downward LOS.

These can be specifically devoted to use by the systems disclosed herein or can have multiple or additional purposes. The issued patents referenced in the Introductory Remarks Section of this document describe various and particular features of LARcodes and certain modes of use. Furthermore, in certain applications and venues, it can be satisfactory to place Reference colors or white balance targets intended for use with LARcodes in one or several known locations within the venue.

Such Reference targets can be completely separate from the LARcodes themselves. They can be simplified codes e. RRs plus one, two or three colors which are READ intermittently, or as required by system performance, to support reliable decoding.

This, in turn, can make otherwise reserved locations on other LARcodes available for other purposes including data coding. Locational Reference targets can also ID precisely known pre-measured physical entities within a venue whose images may, in turn, be used as local reference points by a LAR-System enabling it to provide very high precision location data of LARcodes imaged within the venue.

However, here disclosed are various more complex types which have certain particular and desirable capabilities or features. Among these are Blocks composed of Tiles of two or more colors present within a Block in various population proportions and which are quasi-uniformly e.

When treated as a whole, the mixed color tile population represents a Block of mixed color defined by the relative proportion of tiles of the different colors present. Small sub-block tiles of two or more primary colors which are also present as Reference Blocks can be used to create such encoding Blocks. Non-primary mixed colorants can also be used but can yield less robust results if they are not included as a Reference on the LARcode or elsewhere in the scene under closely similar illumination.

If necessary for a particular type of color code, these issues can be minimized by the following method:. This avoids problematic non-primary colors mixed according to different practices. The primaries, as tiles, can be mixed in various population proportions. See FIG. The tiles, if small enough, can be blurred together because they are below the resolution capabilities of the imager used.

Mosaic Blocks can also be statistically or otherwise evenly sampled by LAR-Reader software used for determining the ID of simulated mixed colors. Shown in FIG. Green and B e. The individual tiles and sub-tiles shown in the first three Blocks can be much smaller and more numerous than shown. Furthermore, they need not be all of the same size. A set of uniformly colored Reference Blocks is omitted from the drawing, but the fourth Block IS uniformly colored and could be identified as a Reference Block of color X if it is in a location so assigned by the system software.

Note that if the sub-Block in the lower half of the second Block is illuminated by an appropriately filtered spectrum of red light, the Color R sub-tiles will be bright and the Color G sub-tiles will be very dim. When then illuminated with green light, the relative brightness will invert. This will be discussed further below. The second Block of FIG. MCM Sub-Block patterns can be interleaved or divide their occupancy of a shared Block in a great multiplicity of ways and can differ with respect to the fraction of the total area of a given Block occupied by one sub-region spectral type vs other s.

Tiles in Blocks or sub-Blocks can be arranged in distinctive patterns including but not limited to forms which have immediate complex interpretive meaning to humans e. Obviously, such patterns, if too distant or for other reasons, can be too heavily blurred to be READ directly by a given LAR-Reader which might be optimized, e.

Employing multi-color Illuminator technologies as disclosed herein, which vary spectra and or other optical properties in controlled time sequences, can provide additional data enabling details in images of sub-Block types, shapes and patterning to be distinguished because of their differing time-dependent color details.

This creates rich sets of coding possibilities. LARcodes can be read at long stand-off distances without requiring precisely detailed imagery. In contrast, Bar-codes, QR codes etc. One solution used in the art is to make such QR or Bar-codes physically large, e. GPS-supported selective message activation also can be problematic as to sufficiently precise location accuracy in crowded display windows etc. Disclosed in FIG. The NESTs are easily located and isolated in an image e. Color Block sizes can differ to accommodate different sizes of the detailed content codes nested within them.

The various shaded and black patterns above represent different colors. Six background color Blocks are shown in this example, with six QR codes —printed in colors different from their backgrounds superimposed on them.

QR codes can also be printed in black. Reference Color Blocks can be used in addition, but are not shown in the drawing. As shown again merely symbolically in the lower right Block in FIG. Top-Level information from the LARcode can describe the much more detailed information available if the LARcode, with its Nested code content, were to be more closely approached or selected for more detailed reading by, e.

In any of the concepts disclosed here, the Top-Level Data can include a List of the Titles or some other characterizing information concerning the Nested Detail-Level Data. Such lists or similar techniques e. Top-Level data can also cause a suitably-equipped LAR-Reader to automatically react with tracking, zoom, or other capabilities to capture and process the detailed data which can be either open or encrypted information when or if such Detail-Level Data are present in nested codes.

This has both practical and psychological implications. Their Top-Level data, readable at a distance and even if posed sub-optimally for reading, can invite a user to walk down the aisle, divert to a display, cross a room, come down the street to a store window etc.

Getting that detail-level information does not necessarily require real-time wireless connectivity because the Nest data codes can be readable using software residing in the LAR-Reader device itself. This can be useful in areas where coverage or access is limited or under-developed. Thus I read about a 15 minute long burger deal while you read about fish sandwiches—from same Nest—so to speak. Very simple visible Symbols such as Arrows or a light etc. Proximal to Larcodes. The last-named function can also be efficiently enabled using the optional RR's on the QR code groups as guides.

While six QR codes are shown, obviously any number can be used. LARcod can include RR's Each of these, in this case, contains a BARcode which can be any other type of optically-readable code such as another LARcode. An acceptable image of the Key is needed to gain desired full access, functionality or other results dependent upon valid readings of the images of the codes which are coupled to the KEY.

The number and types of codes in a given assembly need not be a fixed parameter. Such access can also convey other defined privileges to the user or can enable many other types of actions such as participation in voting, prize drawings, registering opinions etc. The information that is unlocked to the user can be directly encoded within the NEST in plain or encrypted form. Additionally, the NEST can contain look-up information which is used to access the unlocked information from a central data base.

A Key can be provided upon fulfilling a particular condition or conditions: i. A Key can be easily changed, re-issued, deemed expired or replaced at any time the System operator chooses or requires. Such RRLARcodes can be fabricated using transparent inks that are printed or otherwise laid down on receptive transparent films or coatings behind which are materials with retro-reflecting properties.

They can also be fabricated using screen printing methods to transfer retro-reflective paints or pigments onto non-retro-reflective substrates. Since retro-reflective sheet materials e. Printing can be via ink-jet or other techniques. This and other methods can also be implemented using recently demonstrated nano-gratings as the reflectors. The several printing and screen methods just described are among various processes that can also be used to produce sub-PATTERNS and mosaic-like areas within a single Code area or Block.

These patterns can, within themselves, be multi-colored for reasons explained in Section B. Also, while mentioned here in the context of RRLARcode production, these are applicable to fabricating LARcodes on other types of substrates including paper, cloth, opaque plastics, glass etc and also, by adherence or other means, on objects that are not inherently retro-reflective. In any method or Apparatus disclosed herein as using passive retro reflectors in LARcode elements also LARsponder as in Part C another method can use strips, squares, or other shapes of different mono-colored transparent Gels available in a VERY wide range of transmission spectra contours which are assembled side by side to produce the functional RRLARcode or in some cases over-lapped and then overlaid, in total, on a retro-reflective backing.

The comparatively bright returned light from filtered retro-reflective color codes or otherwise-patterned RR regions enables all-region retro-reflective RRLARcodes to be used in bright ambient lighting conditions. In moderately lit, dim, or dark venues, the Illuminator light levels can be correspondingly lower.

Related matters are further discussed in the following Section. Novel types of RR Regions can also be comprised of more than one type e. The wavelengths of such stimulated emissions are often sharply defined. Depending upon the materials used, the stimulated phosphorescence can be in different spectral regions. This facilitates novel methods of use of multi-color LARcodes especially in venues where the ambient lighting is normally of comparatively low-brightness e.

Excitation sources can be close to LARcodes of this type. It can be delivered e. Distinctive multi-spectral or mono-spectral UV-excited phosphorescent Blocks, sub-Blocks and patterns, such as mosaic-like tiling, can be used as LARcodes. If RR's are designed into or are otherwise operationally associated with LARcodes employing some form of phosphorescence, lighting sources positioned close to a high sensitivity LARsensor LOS can be used to locate LARcodes via continuous or intermittent retro-reflection of IR sources.

In addition to, or in combination with the above methods and apparatus, high-sensitivity monochrome or color visible light imagers and the various multi-spectral methods described in PART A can be used in dim venues. Twilight can be low-light in one situation but very bright compared to moonless nights or other situations in which LARcodes must function.

They can have monochrome or multi-spectral capabilities. In particular, they can operate with LARcodes at levels near or below the visibility threshold of the normal or even dark-adapted human eye. Particular applications involving other venue equipment, commencement of alerting and response activities etc.

If desired, or as already registered in the system, the owner's Imager can be alerted to opt-in or can be auto-admitted to that system via the RFID code Reader s. As in B. As in B The above properties and methods can be used to facilitate creation of LARcodes etc. Standardized data locations e. The presence of codes can be very unobtrusive and subtle, if desired. This is in contrast to BARcodes and similar standardized formats. Not all labels need carry the same or any LARcode, thus inviting close attention.

The shaded figures are examples of color code elements. Backgrounds can be colored also. Other LARcodes associated with the label code can be added. The Methods and Apparatus disclosed thus far in this document have related primarily but not exclusively to the acquisition by LAR-Readers of fixed information represented by pre-defined and fixed data-coding features of LARcodes or other code formats.

LARsponder technology can take a wide variety of forms. Use of such mobile and networked communications devices in environments in which LARsponders can also be employed is further discussed elsewhere in this document. Supported by their companion technologies, as detailed in other sections of this document, they enable two-way, real-time, feature-rich, interactive communication between individual users and complex systems and open a wide range of novel commercially significant applications.

Many types of LARsponders can be manufactured at near zero cost. They often can be merely printed on paper, cardboard, or plastic sheeting etc. They can be used globally in any venue in which LARcode Reader Systems are either temporarily or permanently installed. In a given interactive venue, a few individuals or many tens of thousands can simultaneously participate in rapidly-paced activity using LARsponders in real-time without encountering traffic delays or long latency in system response.

LARsponder functions can be implemented using LARcodes or combinations of elements comprising parts of any types of LARcodes or entities associated with such LARcodes or using other code forms or defined data sources such as BARcodes etc as described earlier in this document. A wide range of inexpensive LARsponders can be customized to deliver varied mental, observational and physical challenges.

If desired, in-venue LARsponder data can be melded with or compete with other data amenable to being collected from out-of-venue sources, e. Such out-of-venue data can be communicated to and collected by the System using known methods such as the Internet, WI-FI, cell-phone texting etc. Additionally, these last-named channels can also be used for certain forms of data amenable to collection from sources inside the venue but who do not belong to any LARsponder-user cohort.

In this class of applications, they can optically-read by LARcode Readers and can function as transducers. In this instance, the LARsponder employs both obscuration and disclosure response mechanisms. Feature illustrates a response recognizable by obscuring an RR which can or cannot be of a particular color depending on the data interpretation software in use.

Feature uses folding to disclose or obscure another coding element again optionally an RR or merely a pigmented region. The following sections provide both broader descriptions of LARsponder apparatus and methods as well as some examples of specific or illustrative embodiments. See also Section C. Response by Feature Obscuration or Designation. A finger or cylinder etc a pointer, a pencil, etc.

Designators can also be used to occult an underlying region of a LARsponder such as a uniform RR region thereby assisting LARcode Readers in determining more precisely what point in a LARsponder image is being designated. These examples also are representative of LARsponders capable of communicating quantitative opinions or choices etc.

The various types of shadings in above and elsewhere throughout this Disclosure are meant to represent different colors in the spectrum and can or cannot also be retro-reflective. Interpretation of patterns of obscuration can be more complex using accessory objects to perform occultation of the block or blocks. It is not fastened to the main LARsponder disk. It can be coded. It is easily centered using, e. Multiple type indicators can be used with a given LARsponder disk, if desired. The indicator can be adhered to some point along , , , or on perimeter to portray a quantitative response.

This is the inverse of Feature Obscuration, whereby a previously hidden or not visible LARsponder element or elements or an associated entity becomes visible to one or more LARcode Readers as a result of, but not limited to, actions such as slide-out removal of covers, covers being opened to view by rotation, unfurling, folding over or unfolding, by tear-out, scrape-off of an over-coat layer etc. In either disclosure or the above obscuration methods, partial effects via masking or unmasking can be employed which rely on specifically defined changes of shape e.

A LARsponder's orientation or change in orientation as set by the user must typically be with respect to some specific orthogonal set of coordinates known to the user and detectable by LARcode Readers. One suitable orthogonal reference system can be with respect to the user's personal coordinates e. Another class of orientations can be with reference to a set of orthogonal axes with a major or principal axis being along an LOS aligned toward a distinctive landmark or toward an activity area such as a user selected place, person or other entity on a playing field or toward a large screen data display etc.

For certain responses or types of participative activities, LARsponder users can be informed that the major axis of the orthogonal coordinate system to be used is aligned along their LOS toward a specific LARcode Reader. Matters related to these types of uses of LARsponders are further discussed elsewhere in this disclosure. These types of orientation elements also can be serviceable even if somewhat curved in three dimensions, e.

Element examples , , and facilitate determination of a principle reference axis, axis length and orientation direction data. Element is a compact design maximizing color block space while also providing orientation and direction of read information. In particular, see , , , , , and Reference Elements such as to some of those in FIG.

Both the graphics and the RR regions can be printed or screened or can be separately die-cut from sheets etc. Four very simple low precision orientations, as in are facilitated. NOTE: Personally-centered orientation reference coordinates are especially well-suited to LARsponders associated with clothing, personal accessories, or other body-mounted locations.

Novel types of salable consumer products based upon this fact are possible and proprietary descriptions of certain such products will be found in Appendices to this Disclosure. The Color regions e. Many of the color and patterning methods disclosed in PART B can be similarly employed in these areas. Many types of 2D LARsponder designs, including those shown in these examples with the exception of example can be double-sided and can accommodate choices picked from among two sets of possibilities.

It can be affixed to an Event Program or other item. It, like many other LARsponder designs, can be double-sided offering e. To avoid confusion, one side or both can be supplied with e. It accommodates choices signaled by orientations differing in angle by 45 degrees and by which color pairs lie on opposite diagonal, vertical and horizontal axes.

These color pairs can be reflective or not shown retro-reflective. In principle, LARsponders of this general type can provide a large number of choices: in this case, 8 possible orientations times 8 possible choices of obscured color allow 64 possible response choices. A simpler version of obviously could offer e. NOTE: Another useful method of indicating choice in many types of LARsponder designs, for example as above re , is to make an RR an independent item or element made of magnetic sheeting or backed with one or more small adhered magnets and arrange the LARsponder to also have some appropriately positioned ferrous content so the RR element can be stably adhered to it in any desired orientation.

Successful use of large response universes presumably implies a certain level of skill, especially if time constraints are imposed. They can be of various types of cross-sections, circular, square, rectangular, polygonal, faceted and otherwise. This will be discussed further in Section 3c below. The first example is based on a cylindrical tube , in this case of circular cross-section. The exterior of the tube can also be of some distinctive color or colors and can carry 2-D LARcodes not shown.

Although the examples here described use components with unvarying cross-sections e. The tube can be internally lined with some particular color, e. The lining can preferably be retro-reflective RR material. Although the lining color as shown is uniform, the liner or portions of it—e. The tubular structure shields the internal RR from ambient venue lighting to a significant degree. The distal end of the tube in this example is closed, although in other embodiments it can be partially open or penetrated by structures or devices passive or active to facilitate precise aiming.

The plane of the entrance end of the tube need not be orthogonal to the tube central axis. The interior surface of closure is also a retro-reflector but preferably of a color distinctly different from that of the cylindrical liner. It also can be patterned.

Element represents a visual aiming aid for the user. The sequence of views of the front portion of the LARsponders - shows how the shape of the interior liner red RR region and of the green closure RR region and also their ratios—which can serve as an additional and potentially robust pointing indicator will vary with LARsponder pointing angle as seen along the LOS of one particular LARcode Reader when excited e.

Elements , , and illustrate that tube cross-sections other than circular can be used in this general class of LARsponders. Example , with all faces available for coding in distinctive ways, also offers 5-D capabilities as well but its coding surfaces are more exposed to uncontrolled ambient light.

Other possible trigger mechanisms include, but are not limited to such actions as causing momentary gross collapse or distortion of a LARsponder structure or sub-structures , for example, tubular component s with flexible-walls. Hex, square, rectangular cross-sections etc.

For a given overall size, bundles have a narrower range of on-target acceptance angles and can display patterns of interior RR wall colors of distal-end RRs providing additional distinctive coding options and data for the LARcode system software including, for example, rotational angle. Item shows a bundle with an angular cut entrance which widens the range of view angles over which the interior wall color patterns and RRs can be seen by a given LARcode Reader.

The shape of the entrance end of the bundle need not be planar. This example can also be used in higher degrees of freedom applications, e. This can be done for competitive purposes or otherwise. Software processing can also be used as the basis of new forms of responses somewhat analogous to swarm, flock and fish-schooling behavior wherein responses direction of motion, velocities, selection points etc. Please see also Sub-sections 3c-2, 5, 7, and 8 below in this regard.

Item depicts a Jumbotron, Diamond Vision, or other large mass audience direct-view or projection digital screen. Perimeter-mounted LARcode Readers are shown. There can be a substantial number of these and they can be aimed along diverging lines of sight to cover user locations in the venue.

The latter are positioned in front of the display either near its surface or at distance in front of it. Light weight and measuring less than a few square inches, these can, for example, be suspended by thin guy-wires which also can carry data and power etc. They can be easily retracted for servicing etc. Their lines-of-sight look outward toward audience areas. At viewing distances used for mass-audience displays such as Jumbotrons, the Reader heads will be unobtrusive if not essentially invisible.

Note that in smaller venues, only auxiliary Readers mounted on perimeters of venue displays should typically be required. It can be remarked that the above concepts, methods, and apparatus which enable high precision aiming, pointing etc. Many other versions are possible.

The principles incorporated in this example can be readily combined with or substituted by other LARcode and LARsponder concepts disclosed throughout this document. Element can be a flat card with 2 diametrically opposite grasping points held between index fingers and thumbs of both hands. The regions, for example, can be monochrome or colored RR Locate regions. Additional LARcodes, designator codes, validation codes, etc. The tab, if exposed, can serve a different function or modify the meaning of the signal.

Merely as one example, the well-known single player video game of steering competing racecars can be converted into a multiple player games. Joy-Stick control of direction of motion, steering precision, velocities, selection points etc. Furthermore, the above aggregation types of processing or others can have dynamic capabilities and can apply adaptive criteria, e. Please also see Paragraph 8 below.

Motions can denote or indicate a desired result such as a change of 3D position of the LARsponder with respect to a defined reference point or by pointing e. Responses can be singular, in short series, continuing, repeated until cued otherwise, or performed against fixed time-limits. LARsponders can consist of several distinct sub-assemblies which can be conjoined, assembled, or disassembled to indicate different types of responses.

The sub-assemblies can include their own unique RR and code regions enabling their own independent response capabilities or none while apart and other or different response capabilities when assembled with one or more companions. See also the Response mechanisms described in following paragraph wherein the art disclosed therein can, as an option, be implemented using elements or entities which, themselves, constitute or had constituted sub-assemblies of a given type of LARsponder.

The other element or elements can be comprised of multiple objects. They can also be images on a display or displays within view of the user. Association or orienting can also mean but is not limited to the act of indicating or establishing some specific vector direction or distance with respect to an entity as described, for example, in FIG. C 2 or groups of entities or references within the venue as viewed by the LARsponder user directly or as seen in images on a display or displays within view of the user.

Associations of any type can be formed or instigated on cue, can be of some defined minimum duration or spacing, and can be periodic, adjustable, repetitive, or one-time opportunities. LARsponders can use pressure variations on a fluid-filled reservoir bulb connected to one or more transparent chambers, arrays of channels, or tubes etc. The user can signal off-on binary or analog proportional data depending on the detailed design.

A clamp or similar component can be used to hold the loaded fluid in place until data are read out by LARcode Readers. Section B. They enable response methods via any types of modulation of the light signals being emitted or reflected by the LARsponder from one or more of its component elements. Modulation types can include simple on-off, digital or analog data encoding etc.

The LARsponder user control interface can be of any convenient type known in the Art. A LARsponder user's Smartphone or other device can possess orientation-sensing e. It can have capabilities for precise directional motion measurement e. In such instances, these assets can provide additional data or complimentary channels of response. The referenced Figure shows a LARcode which can confer acceptability event-specific or otherwise to an MID or other networked device as a data source.

Various forms of LARsponders can be similarly associated and used to validate such data sources. Pre-qualification, device registration event specific or otherwise , or other evidence such as transmission of a validated LARcode authorization sticker number etc.

Such qualification and subsequent participation can also be based on transmitting, relaying or annotating etc. Images can be of a portion of transmitted video coverage of venue activities, or of an AD running during such coverage. Venue-defined registration and authorization etc. Such off-venue authorization can be for one-event, season long etc. The Application download or specialized website can be tuned to working with one particular LARsponder type used in the venue or can accommodate a number of configurations.

The user-owned LARcode Reader can display cues and other data originating from the venue system. It can directly view a local LARsponder in the user's possession as it is being manipulated according to activities occurring in the venue and which are transmitted from it to off-site displays e. Note that this method allows for many types of remote interactions which can be varied by features of inexpensive or free LARsponders and are not hardware or provider-bound to one particular type of ISP, cellular phone service, imager type, Smartphone model, etc.

Participation can be via one or more validated LARsponders pre-supplied and registered by various means as described elsewhere herein. These LARsponders are viewed and manipulated by the user's Webcam s. Note that these capabilities can be uniquely customized to different audience segments, to the event or product promotion, to the large-screen ad being featured on the home as well as on the venue screens etc. The captured images can be images of any form of visible graphical data-code such as bar-codes and or other standard formats as well as LARcodes.

This can incentivize a user to take closer note of existing ads, products etc. An in-venue or remote participant's collection of such images can be submitted to a LAR-System supporting a given in-venue event or other happening to gain some competitive or reward advantage re participation in the event or activity. The two types of 3-D polyhedra a stellated dodecahedron and an icosidodecahedron shown in FIG. In images obtained by a given LARcode Reader with a particular LOS, facet region shapes and colors of a given type of polyhedron will vary substantially with orientation as suggested by 3-D polyhedras and that are located in area The size of any 3-D LARsponder or LARcode element can, of course, range widely depending upon the application ranging from small fractions of an inch to several feet and beyond.

A given form of 3-D element need not be employed only as a whole. It can be sliced, split, sectioned, segmented etc. The remaining items in FIG. Items and portray 3-D LARsponder components mountable singly or on multiples on limbs, e. Other versions of simulated baseball pitching could allow actual release and recovery. Larger LARsponders of this class can be used to simulate bowling, football passing etc. In this example, the Cap is shown with an approximately planar 2-D LARcode on its visor and might be used as illustrated with respect to item in FIG.

This general type of LARcode structure can, in turn, be mounted on a thin rod etc to move it away from any other component of the LARsponder with which it is associated. This is in contrast to, for example, data provided by typical motion capture technology.

LARsponders or portions thereof can be based upon objects, positioned on objects or tethered thereto. They can include LARcode components positioned on containing, enveloping, bag-like, or wrapped elements or containers such as bottles, beverage cartons, Tetra-Paks and others. Personal items such as credentials, ID cards, badges etc.

Note that data relevant to the validity of these types of items can become readable and verifiable at substantial distances when the item bears or is modified by the addition of suitable LARcode elements. Most of the Response apparatus, modes of use and manipulation described in this document can also be used as preliminary or initial activation procedures. LARsponders can be constructed to be operating or decorative parts of objects.

Such Reference elements can be products, product labels, or other graphic or object components s or other entities with which LARcodes or components thereof can be associated. Affiliation is not necessarily mandatory to qualify a LARsponder as usable. A sticker , and are a few examples obtained by purchase, hand-out, or otherwise, is adhered to the ticker by its user thereby converting the ticket into a LARsponder.

The other two examples and enable orientation responses in addition to those enables by the disk-type, and a much-expanded universe of codes. Item is a generic representation of a document such as an event program, brochure, magazine, catalog, book, or the like. These codes can or cannot be complete in the sense of being only the non-retro-reflective graphics portion of the LARcode depending upon the preferences of the provider of the document. A code without RR elements can be activated by user placement of a separate user applied adhesive-backed RR sticker, such as LARcodes such as can also be separately and similarly supplied to a prospective user and can be fully assembled or require some user assembly such as placing RR element sticker on LARcode sticker and then affixing the whole to document The LARsponder thus completed can also be validated and granted additional response capabilities such as selecting among various other graphics or Ads which can be merely traditionally printed on the page.

Item is a group of 3 RR adherent strips of different colors. Items show beer bottles converted by its purchaser to a three choice LARsponder by affixing an RR strip supplied with the bottle to it. If the bottle in nearly empty or closed, more choices can be handled including right horizontal etc. In addition to collecting mass anonymous opinions of venue attendees, LARcode Readers of these types of LARsponders can record specific user locations within a venue.

Actual awards can be presented by ushers or roaming in this example, beer vendors. Other methods and apparatus for converting bottles into LARsponders are shown in , , , , and Bottles have been used above merely as representative of drink container-type articles of commerce. Many venues such as stadiums only permit paper-cups or other disposables.

Items through illustrate use of paper-cup folded paper handles with LARcodes , , allowing degree of handle rotation about a vertical axis to be interpreted as designating choices along with various auxiliary data. Items through show the previously explained examples and concepts applied to paper-cups with LARcode components. In all of the above, it is to be understood that use of the specific articles of commerce chosen as examples is not intended to imply as any restriction on the types of basic or elaborate articles of commerce which can be similarly converted to LARsponders.

Gesture-requirements can be altered frequently e. Please see also Section C. RR frames can be provided on any of credentials , , and LARsponder, such as in the form of Credit card , can be pre-verified by magnetic strip located on the credential. See also Section D. Each compartment can be pre-filled with a sample of a liquid or semi-liquid product—e. Several sampler compartments can be grouped in a single structure.

When a sample is extracted from a compartment identified, for example, by its location with respect to its proximal LARcode or by other spatial reference , and tasted or otherwise evaluated , the process of extraction can reveal a second LARcode element or other discernible evidence establishing that the user opened that particular LARsponder sample compartment.

Participants can be incentivized to participate by offers of prizes, discounts etc. Note that the exact location e. LARsponders can specify a specific screen within a venue or the type of challenge the user wishes to confront. There are numerous other possible techniques which can be used to similar purpose. Without implying any limitations with regard to such possibilities, a few examples are sketched below:.

GPS also can confirm and register presence potentially to high spatial precision if enhanced GPS is used in a venue. Incentives to obtain the delivered materials can be various, free offers etc. They can also assist the user in correctly meeting subsequent challenges as presented by the venue displays etc.

Such incentive-driven and similar procedures can also provide valuable demographic data for subsequent targeted uses. Using LARcodes with an adequate universe of possible codes, each LARsponder used in a venue can obviously be individually ID'd although its user can remain anonymous. Event team formation my also be coordinated using any type of Social Networking Application for Smartphones etc. Teams can be defined by Physical Blocks of seats, e. Section D, rows 1 - 12 or determined by all players within less than X distance from a particular venue Reference Marker which is visually labeled for the benefit of users, e.

One block of seats can be playing against a different challenge than another block of seats. By simple proximity, geometric criteria i. Such proposals can be posted on video signage or audio announcements, cell phone messages etc. Sport Normal Categories. Alter ego At random. Fitting Rancour. Scrutinize Other Categories.

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Such populations can, nevertheless, participate in many types of LAR-System-based special events or venue-specific experiences almost immediately. The technology can be wholly self-sufficient and self-contained. Versions of it can be packaged to be installed in a venue, operated, and then removed quickly and economically. The present Applicant has previously disclosed and patented certain particular types of coded data sources and associated imager apparatus and methods to be used with them.

The following Table lists the US versions of these patents. Applicant's prior issued patents, as listed above, disclose among other concepts, codes in the form of passive generally planar entities carrying a group of pigmented regions such as colored Blocks or stripes or other simple shapes, each color being chosen from a specified repertoire. Data are encoded using combinations of regions in different colors and different positions on the code.

Methods and apparatus are described, including, in particular and for example, regions that are retro-reflecting in the infra-red used as aids to locating and isolating coded ROIs Regions of Interest. A simple example of a typical code 10 is shown in FIG. In this example, shown in FIG. Codes 10 can be much smaller or larger than in this example. NOTE: Throughout the present document, different colors are conveyed as different monochrome shadings and patterns merely for convenience and avoid the necessity of color printing.

Images of a code color Block sequence and other information about the code 10 , as acquired by suitable sensors, can be conveyed to information data processing systems. The color Block 11 sequence so acquired by the information system can inform it as to which of many Application Software programs available to it each specific code's instantaneous position, size, pose, etc. Each color Block 11 on a code 10 can be of significant specific but non-critical width and height relative to the overall code dimensions.

The code data conveyed by the code depends upon the overall configuration of the array of color areas. For a given type of optics and sensor resolutions, this also allows their use over a markedly extended range of stand-off distances. This property is in contrast to the need to determine precise details of a variable set of relative widths of monochrome black lines and their spacing thin to wide when, for example, typical BARcodes are used.

LARcodes 10 can take many forms and can be as simple as pieces of printed paper or a plastic strips, or in similar form that can be adhered or otherwise fastened on an item of interest or made structurally part of it. These are accompanied by a closely co-located Illuminator which may, for example, be an IR source. The first image can be an RGB color video camera using one or more sensor elements intended for imaging in the visible spectrum or portions thereof.

The second, in this example, can be a similar video camera selectively sensitive to IR. The first Imager outputs traditional RGB color video of a scene. This enables fast and computationally efficient isolation, analysis, and motion tracking of LARcode locations in the color video data and efficient Reading of the color-encoded data carried by such LARcodes.

A second and functionally equivalent LAR-Reader, also disclosed in Applicant's prior patents consists of a pair of sensor arrays, one for the visible spectrum and one for IR e. The concepts and configurations, as taught by the above listed Patents, are useful. However, they have certain limitations which are overcome by the teachings disclosed in the present document.

These teachings represent a significant advancement over the previous art and offer capabilities and features which are both novel and useful in a wide variety of commercially important applications. Custom production of specialized imaging devices specifically intended for service as LAR-Readers is certainly possible.

Such custom devices, along with appropriate proprietary software, represent one way to provide the functionality needed in the applications and teachings taught herein. However, the custom device production approach obviously ignores the huge number of imagers with many useful features and functional flexibility already being mass-produced and already in use world-wide as well as new devices destined to appear in the future.

There are strong recent trends toward some overlap depending upon the details of the systems and applications in which they are used. The art disclosed herein is not fundamentally dependent on this categorization, which is merely for convenience of discussion. They feature bi-directional wireless connectivity, integrated displays, and versatile software capabilities.

Tablet computers and Laptops with associated Webcams can also share such characteristics. Configurations of this general type can be especially well-suited to creating relatively small systems using a few to a few dozen Webcams. Multiples of such systems can cooperatively cover much larger spaces. TYPE 2 imaging devices can include:. Machine-vision and special purpose cameras, color, IR, and monochrome, offering a wide-range of useful and special purpose capabilities such as very high frame speed, very high resolution, image intensification and multiple simultaneous ROI capabilities.

Output is typically hardwire via Ethernet, Camera-link, GigE, various wireless adapters etc. Certain types of the above-listed devices are purposely designed to have low IR sensitivity so as to improve visible image contrast and lens performance. This is usually achieved by including a built-in IR Blocking filter in the optical path.

The filter can or cannot be removable. Use existing commercial visible light imaging devices that do not completely Block IR at wavelengths available from practical IR Illuminators of sufficiently high brightness. Use commercial imaging devices from which the IR Blocking filter can be removed, allowing IR to pass and simply tolerating or computationally compensating for any losses in image contrast or color shift that can result. Any or all of these three options can be appropriately exploited as further detailed herein.

Options 1 and 2 retain covert capability. Option 3 is not covert, but can offer relatively low informal detection probability depending upon the other lighting in the environment. Methods using these three Options are specifically described in Section A. Smartphone to LAR-Readers. LARCA 23 can include a number of lamps 24 and a color filter set In one form, a built in flash 28 can be included, such as coupled to mobile device A filter 29 can be provided and associated with built in flash 28 for RR excitation, while an attenuator 30 can be provided and associated with built in flash 28 for RR intensity.

An optional optical trigger 31 from flash 28 can be included along with a bi-directional data channel 32 that can couple mobile device 21 to LARCA In one form, mobile device 21 and LARCA 23 can be coupled to other devices, such as LARcode processing systems and databases, 3 rd party systems, local venue systems and displays etc. The functional rationale for features and capabilities of the components shown in FIGS. See the Table below. Smart phones are multi-purpose and small. Weight and compactness in particular are important.

With appropriate system Application software, such single-frame data could, e. On the other hand, another type of Smartphone etc. The utility of a range of flash power levels and sequences of flashes from a PLCM equipped with multiple lamps optionally with different color filters 25 will be detailed later in this disclosure. PLCM lighting can be triggered by an electrical or fiber-optical signal via link 31 from the Smartphone's own built-in flash unit. The displacement is shown as horizontal, but can be otherwise, e.

With reference to FIG. For simplicity, some of these features are not shown. Images or groups of images thus obtained can be processed by known stitching software techniques. Mobile device 48 can be a Type 1 imager OR a Cell-phone or other wireless networked device which can or cannot have any on-board imaging capability. Mobile device 48 can be within a general scene within a field of view of imagers 41 and 42 that can include LAR-coded objects, LARsponders, Reference points, etc.

CamCluster image capture by members of a cluster 52 can be simultaneous, interleaved, sequenced or otherwise varied within the cluster Some or all members of a CamCluster 52 can be equipped with filters for reasons to be discussed subsequently. Versions of CamClusters 52 need not be arranged as shown. Light sources controlled by or associated with PLCMs can deliver different types of illumination to serve different purposes, For example, they can control multiple lamps 44 and 47 , some or all of which are filtered and which can be energized singly or in various combinations to deliver lighting with different spectral characteristics.

When excited by incoming sources at somewhat different locations, such as using multiple lamps 47 which can be e. Such test series can be inserted from time-to-time in the data stream at frequencies based upon history, code locations in a venue or other criteria.

This condition can be identified, for example, by the presence of pixels with signal amplitudes marginally close to a defined minimum threshold. Excessive brightness can be determined, for example, by the presence of a group or groups of saturated pixels that are larger than a pre-determined minimum size relative to the overall code image. These capabilities can be especially effective for quasi-stationary or relatively slow-moving codes. Local time of day data can be an input to the system.

Data from dedicated accessory sensors monitoring changes in ambient light due to cloud cover, sunlight through windows etc. For example, if bright sunlight is present, PLCMs can use powerful general scene multi-spectral color Illuminators in burst sequences. These can help facilitate accurate color READs of several types of LARcodes disclosed herein such as mosaic types or those using subtly different colors to accommodate large amounts of information.

An adaptable number of such multiple images size-adjusted, warped etc. Multi-frame sequences similar to those described above for adjusting illumination to get best RR images and code-areas data for color ID can be complemented or used independently to optimize imager focus, FOV size etc. Spurious RR or specular reflection sources can be surveyed during times when no responses are being requested by LAR-Data Servers which can log their behavior, shapes, etc.

Similarly, LARcodes with particular pre-defined code features can be granted preferential frequency or relative priority of attention but not exclusivity as compared to others in a scene. Regions that are bright with the latter sources off can be used to identify and ignore or mask unwanted other lights or bright spots in the LAR-Reader's FOV. Among others, a multi-color sequence capability opens novel ways of using visible spectrum color light sources.

Night Vision Intensifiers-NVIs together with non-visible illumination sources and coding materials whose reflectivity, luminescence, or phosphorescence is wavelength dependent in the IR or UV. LARcodes can use coding methods employing pigments or other substances having different IR brightness levels under IR illumination from sources which can have various spectral profiles.

It is noteworthy that NVIs are also now available which create detailed false-color visible output imagery based upon IR scene details including LARcodes designed to be read under IR illumination. Outputs from these NVIs can be directly optically coupled to the various types of visible imagers employed in LAR-Readers discussed herein.

Such collective data series enable use of a large color universe by being capable of detecting subtle color differences especially when there are steep changes in transmission at different wavelengths of the illumination light filters used. The above methods and concepts offer significant advantages over determining the color of a Block, sub-Block, or mosaic using only the data in a traditionally-captured color image using a single unvarying illumination spectrum.

Different weights can be given to data from a given pixel in an image under different illumination spectra. Multiple color standards positioned in known locations within a scene, or within a LARcode itself, can be employed for matching and color ID if necessary and can be desirable especially in venues where the PLCM lighting must compete with bright ambient levels. They can have a capability to command dimming or ON-OFF control of sources of ambient light within their environment. NOTE: It is not to be inferred that the general types of multi-spectral Apparatus and Methods briefly introduced above and further disclosed in various portions of this document are limited solely to the purposes discussed.

They can be used more broadly for any situation, coding method, circumstance, purpose or system in which robust discrimination between subtly differing colors in any imaged scene is required and spectrally-filtered illumination sequences can be employed. The emphasis in this document is on methods using single devices functioning as LAR-Readers.

For example, one imager can be an IR sensitive camera or imaging array for the LOCATE function collaborating with a physically separate visible-light sensitive camera or imaging array. One can be a filtered or intensified device, the other a high frame rate imager or one capable of executing ROI options. Image processing software known in the art for shape recognition, shape-warping, color boundary recognition etc can assist in this task. This task can also be facilitated by using images containing BOTH fixed Reference Markers in pre-determined locations in a venue combined with a LARcode's apparent size in an image to determine a relatively precise off-set correction for combining and aligning corresponding pixels in the IR and visible sensor images.

Similar and related approaches to the above can take advantages of the recent commercial availability of devices featuring two complete cameras, each with its own lens, contained in a single camera body. An available Dual Capture Shooting Mode allows simultaneous capture of two frames at different settings, one through each lens.

Separate focal length, exposure, and color settings can be used for each. The device could then switch to devote one camera to shooting a wide-angle image while, at the same time, the other might be zoomed-in to capture an ROI portion of the image. Methods and apparatus here disclosed enable a single as-built camera or other imager to function as a versatile LAR-Reader.

The method uses either the built-in flash as supplied with the imager and assumed mounted near the LOS of the camera lens or another light source such as shown in FIGS. The purpose of the attenuation of the visible flash from the built-in Flash unit is to insure that returns from RR images in the scene are at non-blooming brightness levels.

The low-brightness flash levels which, in some embodiments can be made Adaptive via software or firmware as has been discussed above make LARcode LOCATE RRs in any given frame easy to distinguish while avoiding blooming. With adequate general scene lighting or Flash fill-lighting from sources off-set from the imager LOS, the required LOCATE flash levels need not interfere with reliable reading of non-retro-reflecting LARcode color regions which are captured simultaneously.

This is especially true when color reference standards are included on the LARcodes. These approaches have minimal impact on user-owned Type 1 Imagers and their convenience of use for general purposes. Xenon unit. See, for instance, the example and further details shown in FIGS. If a camera or other imaging device such as a cell-phone, smart-phone, machine vision camera, video camera etc. See, for example, feature 26 in FIG.

For simplicity, various options such as an in-plane 90 degree clock-wise rotation around lamp 24 are not shown. The trigger light can be conveyed via an optical fiber or can activate a photo diode or similar sensor coupled to the PLCM. For example, FIG. The latter is equipped for some form of communications capability such as WI-FI etc.

The accessorized imagers shown in FIGS. If covert or minimally detectable operation is required, other methods such as described in the following Section A. Note that where appropriate to the application, frame acquisition sequences using attenuated visible flashes from a camera's built-in Flash source, such as blocked built-in flash , for LOCATE RR Excitation can be interspersed e. While the simple accessory shown in FIGS. This also applies to systems using one or more Webcams as described in Introductory Section A.

The type 1 imager of FIG. Accessory product can be coupled to the phone and can include a power and control unit , RR light and scene light Somewhat similarly, the type 1 imager of FIG. Accessory product can be coupled to the camera using hot shoe Accessory product can include a scene light and RR light In one form, the camera and accessory product are communicably coupled to each other to allow control signals to pass from one to the other. This causes images of RRs associated with LARcodes to have significantly higher luminance levels than the other portions of such frames.

The method can be used with cameras with or without built-in IR Blocking filters. It can be triggered on almost every frame in certain applications, alternately, periodically or only on-cue in others. Deep Red short duration flashes, even if intense, tend to non-disturbing to the non-dark-adapted human eye, nevertheless, they can brightly reveal any RRs in an otherwise under-exposed image. While the details such as obscuring but not deactivating the built-in flash can vary, Type 1 Imagers equipped with a PLCM 23 also can provide NIR or Deep Red functionality using one light source 24 or several with appropriate filters.

For example, the PLCM can deliver sufficient energy to capture a rapid series of NIR or Deep Red flash exposures at rates faster than a usually slower rate limited by a camera's internal power supply's re-charge time. Single pairs or other combinations of such images can be used for implementing several other concepts and systems some of which are set forth later in this document. Applications include but are not limited to LARcode-implemented activities in semi-darkened theaters, bars, restaurants etc.

Substantially covert codes which have low probability of being detected, even with flashlight inspection of a venue, can be composed of visually black patterns, regions, shapes or strips, etc. The combined areas therefore appear black under normal visible lighting.

If a code is designed for Deep Red Reading, its presence can be slightly compromised in richly reddish ambient. Codes of this type can be used, for example, as targets which are unknowingly occulted by intruders traversing sensitive areas thus causing some type of system response. Others can be closely mounted to the camera's LOS as discussed below. This provides multiple sets of luminance gray-scale level intensity patterns from a given LARcode which are time-dependent and in sync with the different scene Illuminator On-Off sequences.

As a result, multiple image data sets can be acquired which are uniquely dependent on the colors present in the LARcode and also in any sub-patterns if present. Subtle color differences in LARcode code regions can thereby be detected and quantified. The availability of such multiple data sets also allows data noise to be reduced using known signal-processing techniques.

In some instances, the source of ambient light can be fitted with a polarizer to reduce its effective intensity as seen by an imager equipped for the opposite polarization. Both members of a light source pair use the same type of color filter while the Imager is equipped to pass one OR the other type of polarization, but not both.

This technique can be useful in venues where potentially competing illumination levels from ambient un-polarized light sources can be controlled. As in section A. Some of the light sources can be displaced from the camera's LOS while others can be close to it and thus can excite RRs which can themselves optionally be colored or partially colored as discussed further in PART B.

The color camera's wavelength-dependent output response is the result of a combination of the color of a given LARcode Block or RR and the incident filter-modified transmission Illuminator spectrum weighted by the sensor's color response versus wavelength profiles typically 3 RGB channels rather than by a monochrome camera's single spectral sensitivity profile. This method is similar to that described in sections A.

This type of LARcode can also reduce the effects of ambient light in situations where multi-spectral LARcode methods and apparatus are used. For example, LARcode Illuminators shining more or less downward from above and near Readers similarly oriented can be used with LARcodes facing more-or-less upward as they are held or manipulated by users using a horizontal or somewhat downward LOS.

These can be specifically devoted to use by the systems disclosed herein or can have multiple or additional purposes. The issued patents referenced in the Introductory Remarks Section of this document describe various and particular features of LARcodes and certain modes of use.

Furthermore, in certain applications and venues, it can be satisfactory to place Reference colors or white balance targets intended for use with LARcodes in one or several known locations within the venue. Such Reference targets can be completely separate from the LARcodes themselves. They can be simplified codes e. RRs plus one, two or three colors which are READ intermittently, or as required by system performance, to support reliable decoding.

This, in turn, can make otherwise reserved locations on other LARcodes available for other purposes including data coding. Locational Reference targets can also ID precisely known pre-measured physical entities within a venue whose images may, in turn, be used as local reference points by a LAR-System enabling it to provide very high precision location data of LARcodes imaged within the venue. However, here disclosed are various more complex types which have certain particular and desirable capabilities or features.

Among these are Blocks composed of Tiles of two or more colors present within a Block in various population proportions and which are quasi-uniformly e. When treated as a whole, the mixed color tile population represents a Block of mixed color defined by the relative proportion of tiles of the different colors present.

Small sub-block tiles of two or more primary colors which are also present as Reference Blocks can be used to create such encoding Blocks. Non-primary mixed colorants can also be used but can yield less robust results if they are not included as a Reference on the LARcode or elsewhere in the scene under closely similar illumination.

If necessary for a particular type of color code, these issues can be minimized by the following method:. This avoids problematic non-primary colors mixed according to different practices. The primaries, as tiles, can be mixed in various population proportions. See FIG. The tiles, if small enough, can be blurred together because they are below the resolution capabilities of the imager used. Mosaic Blocks can also be statistically or otherwise evenly sampled by LAR-Reader software used for determining the ID of simulated mixed colors.

Shown in FIG. Green and B e. The individual tiles and sub-tiles shown in the first three Blocks can be much smaller and more numerous than shown. Furthermore, they need not be all of the same size. A set of uniformly colored Reference Blocks is omitted from the drawing, but the fourth Block IS uniformly colored and could be identified as a Reference Block of color X if it is in a location so assigned by the system software.

Note that if the sub-Block in the lower half of the second Block is illuminated by an appropriately filtered spectrum of red light, the Color R sub-tiles will be bright and the Color G sub-tiles will be very dim. When then illuminated with green light, the relative brightness will invert. This will be discussed further below. The second Block of FIG. MCM Sub-Block patterns can be interleaved or divide their occupancy of a shared Block in a great multiplicity of ways and can differ with respect to the fraction of the total area of a given Block occupied by one sub-region spectral type vs other s.

Tiles in Blocks or sub-Blocks can be arranged in distinctive patterns including but not limited to forms which have immediate complex interpretive meaning to humans e. Obviously, such patterns, if too distant or for other reasons, can be too heavily blurred to be READ directly by a given LAR-Reader which might be optimized, e. Employing multi-color Illuminator technologies as disclosed herein, which vary spectra and or other optical properties in controlled time sequences, can provide additional data enabling details in images of sub-Block types, shapes and patterning to be distinguished because of their differing time-dependent color details.

This creates rich sets of coding possibilities. LARcodes can be read at long stand-off distances without requiring precisely detailed imagery. In contrast, Bar-codes, QR codes etc. One solution used in the art is to make such QR or Bar-codes physically large, e.

GPS-supported selective message activation also can be problematic as to sufficiently precise location accuracy in crowded display windows etc. Disclosed in FIG. The NESTs are easily located and isolated in an image e. Color Block sizes can differ to accommodate different sizes of the detailed content codes nested within them. The various shaded and black patterns above represent different colors.

Six background color Blocks are shown in this example, with six QR codes —printed in colors different from their backgrounds superimposed on them. QR codes can also be printed in black. Reference Color Blocks can be used in addition, but are not shown in the drawing. As shown again merely symbolically in the lower right Block in FIG.

Top-Level information from the LARcode can describe the much more detailed information available if the LARcode, with its Nested code content, were to be more closely approached or selected for more detailed reading by, e. In any of the concepts disclosed here, the Top-Level Data can include a List of the Titles or some other characterizing information concerning the Nested Detail-Level Data. Such lists or similar techniques e. Top-Level data can also cause a suitably-equipped LAR-Reader to automatically react with tracking, zoom, or other capabilities to capture and process the detailed data which can be either open or encrypted information when or if such Detail-Level Data are present in nested codes.

This has both practical and psychological implications. Their Top-Level data, readable at a distance and even if posed sub-optimally for reading, can invite a user to walk down the aisle, divert to a display, cross a room, come down the street to a store window etc. Getting that detail-level information does not necessarily require real-time wireless connectivity because the Nest data codes can be readable using software residing in the LAR-Reader device itself.

This can be useful in areas where coverage or access is limited or under-developed. Thus I read about a 15 minute long burger deal while you read about fish sandwiches—from same Nest—so to speak. Very simple visible Symbols such as Arrows or a light etc. Proximal to Larcodes. The last-named function can also be efficiently enabled using the optional RR's on the QR code groups as guides.

While six QR codes are shown, obviously any number can be used. LARcod can include RR's Each of these, in this case, contains a BARcode which can be any other type of optically-readable code such as another LARcode. An acceptable image of the Key is needed to gain desired full access, functionality or other results dependent upon valid readings of the images of the codes which are coupled to the KEY. The number and types of codes in a given assembly need not be a fixed parameter. Such access can also convey other defined privileges to the user or can enable many other types of actions such as participation in voting, prize drawings, registering opinions etc.

The information that is unlocked to the user can be directly encoded within the NEST in plain or encrypted form. Additionally, the NEST can contain look-up information which is used to access the unlocked information from a central data base. A Key can be provided upon fulfilling a particular condition or conditions: i. A Key can be easily changed, re-issued, deemed expired or replaced at any time the System operator chooses or requires.

Such RRLARcodes can be fabricated using transparent inks that are printed or otherwise laid down on receptive transparent films or coatings behind which are materials with retro-reflecting properties. They can also be fabricated using screen printing methods to transfer retro-reflective paints or pigments onto non-retro-reflective substrates. Since retro-reflective sheet materials e. Printing can be via ink-jet or other techniques. This and other methods can also be implemented using recently demonstrated nano-gratings as the reflectors.

The several printing and screen methods just described are among various processes that can also be used to produce sub-PATTERNS and mosaic-like areas within a single Code area or Block. These patterns can, within themselves, be multi-colored for reasons explained in Section B.

Also, while mentioned here in the context of RRLARcode production, these are applicable to fabricating LARcodes on other types of substrates including paper, cloth, opaque plastics, glass etc and also, by adherence or other means, on objects that are not inherently retro-reflective. In any method or Apparatus disclosed herein as using passive retro reflectors in LARcode elements also LARsponder as in Part C another method can use strips, squares, or other shapes of different mono-colored transparent Gels available in a VERY wide range of transmission spectra contours which are assembled side by side to produce the functional RRLARcode or in some cases over-lapped and then overlaid, in total, on a retro-reflective backing.

The comparatively bright returned light from filtered retro-reflective color codes or otherwise-patterned RR regions enables all-region retro-reflective RRLARcodes to be used in bright ambient lighting conditions. In moderately lit, dim, or dark venues, the Illuminator light levels can be correspondingly lower.

Related matters are further discussed in the following Section. Novel types of RR Regions can also be comprised of more than one type e. The wavelengths of such stimulated emissions are often sharply defined. Depending upon the materials used, the stimulated phosphorescence can be in different spectral regions.

This facilitates novel methods of use of multi-color LARcodes especially in venues where the ambient lighting is normally of comparatively low-brightness e. Excitation sources can be close to LARcodes of this type. It can be delivered e. Distinctive multi-spectral or mono-spectral UV-excited phosphorescent Blocks, sub-Blocks and patterns, such as mosaic-like tiling, can be used as LARcodes.

If RR's are designed into or are otherwise operationally associated with LARcodes employing some form of phosphorescence, lighting sources positioned close to a high sensitivity LARsensor LOS can be used to locate LARcodes via continuous or intermittent retro-reflection of IR sources.

In addition to, or in combination with the above methods and apparatus, high-sensitivity monochrome or color visible light imagers and the various multi-spectral methods described in PART A can be used in dim venues.

Twilight can be low-light in one situation but very bright compared to moonless nights or other situations in which LARcodes must function. They can have monochrome or multi-spectral capabilities. In particular, they can operate with LARcodes at levels near or below the visibility threshold of the normal or even dark-adapted human eye. Particular applications involving other venue equipment, commencement of alerting and response activities etc. If desired, or as already registered in the system, the owner's Imager can be alerted to opt-in or can be auto-admitted to that system via the RFID code Reader s.

As in B. As in B The above properties and methods can be used to facilitate creation of LARcodes etc. Standardized data locations e. The presence of codes can be very unobtrusive and subtle, if desired. This is in contrast to BARcodes and similar standardized formats. Not all labels need carry the same or any LARcode, thus inviting close attention. The shaded figures are examples of color code elements.

Backgrounds can be colored also. Other LARcodes associated with the label code can be added. The Methods and Apparatus disclosed thus far in this document have related primarily but not exclusively to the acquisition by LAR-Readers of fixed information represented by pre-defined and fixed data-coding features of LARcodes or other code formats. LARsponder technology can take a wide variety of forms. Use of such mobile and networked communications devices in environments in which LARsponders can also be employed is further discussed elsewhere in this document.

Supported by their companion technologies, as detailed in other sections of this document, they enable two-way, real-time, feature-rich, interactive communication between individual users and complex systems and open a wide range of novel commercially significant applications.

Many types of LARsponders can be manufactured at near zero cost. They often can be merely printed on paper, cardboard, or plastic sheeting etc. They can be used globally in any venue in which LARcode Reader Systems are either temporarily or permanently installed. In a given interactive venue, a few individuals or many tens of thousands can simultaneously participate in rapidly-paced activity using LARsponders in real-time without encountering traffic delays or long latency in system response.

LARsponder functions can be implemented using LARcodes or combinations of elements comprising parts of any types of LARcodes or entities associated with such LARcodes or using other code forms or defined data sources such as BARcodes etc as described earlier in this document. A wide range of inexpensive LARsponders can be customized to deliver varied mental, observational and physical challenges.

If desired, in-venue LARsponder data can be melded with or compete with other data amenable to being collected from out-of-venue sources, e. Such out-of-venue data can be communicated to and collected by the System using known methods such as the Internet, WI-FI, cell-phone texting etc. Additionally, these last-named channels can also be used for certain forms of data amenable to collection from sources inside the venue but who do not belong to any LARsponder-user cohort.

In this class of applications, they can optically-read by LARcode Readers and can function as transducers. In this instance, the LARsponder employs both obscuration and disclosure response mechanisms. Feature illustrates a response recognizable by obscuring an RR which can or cannot be of a particular color depending on the data interpretation software in use. Feature uses folding to disclose or obscure another coding element again optionally an RR or merely a pigmented region.

The following sections provide both broader descriptions of LARsponder apparatus and methods as well as some examples of specific or illustrative embodiments. See also Section C. Response by Feature Obscuration or Designation.

A finger or cylinder etc a pointer, a pencil, etc. Designators can also be used to occult an underlying region of a LARsponder such as a uniform RR region thereby assisting LARcode Readers in determining more precisely what point in a LARsponder image is being designated. These examples also are representative of LARsponders capable of communicating quantitative opinions or choices etc.

The various types of shadings in above and elsewhere throughout this Disclosure are meant to represent different colors in the spectrum and can or cannot also be retro-reflective. Interpretation of patterns of obscuration can be more complex using accessory objects to perform occultation of the block or blocks.

It is not fastened to the main LARsponder disk. It can be coded. It is easily centered using, e. Multiple type indicators can be used with a given LARsponder disk, if desired. The indicator can be adhered to some point along , , , or on perimeter to portray a quantitative response. This is the inverse of Feature Obscuration, whereby a previously hidden or not visible LARsponder element or elements or an associated entity becomes visible to one or more LARcode Readers as a result of, but not limited to, actions such as slide-out removal of covers, covers being opened to view by rotation, unfurling, folding over or unfolding, by tear-out, scrape-off of an over-coat layer etc.

In either disclosure or the above obscuration methods, partial effects via masking or unmasking can be employed which rely on specifically defined changes of shape e. A LARsponder's orientation or change in orientation as set by the user must typically be with respect to some specific orthogonal set of coordinates known to the user and detectable by LARcode Readers. One suitable orthogonal reference system can be with respect to the user's personal coordinates e.

Another class of orientations can be with reference to a set of orthogonal axes with a major or principal axis being along an LOS aligned toward a distinctive landmark or toward an activity area such as a user selected place, person or other entity on a playing field or toward a large screen data display etc.

For certain responses or types of participative activities, LARsponder users can be informed that the major axis of the orthogonal coordinate system to be used is aligned along their LOS toward a specific LARcode Reader. Matters related to these types of uses of LARsponders are further discussed elsewhere in this disclosure. These types of orientation elements also can be serviceable even if somewhat curved in three dimensions, e.

Element examples , , and facilitate determination of a principle reference axis, axis length and orientation direction data. Element is a compact design maximizing color block space while also providing orientation and direction of read information.

In particular, see , , , , , and Reference Elements such as to some of those in FIG. Both the graphics and the RR regions can be printed or screened or can be separately die-cut from sheets etc. Four very simple low precision orientations, as in are facilitated. NOTE: Personally-centered orientation reference coordinates are especially well-suited to LARsponders associated with clothing, personal accessories, or other body-mounted locations.

Novel types of salable consumer products based upon this fact are possible and proprietary descriptions of certain such products will be found in Appendices to this Disclosure. The Color regions e. Many of the color and patterning methods disclosed in PART B can be similarly employed in these areas.

Many types of 2D LARsponder designs, including those shown in these examples with the exception of example can be double-sided and can accommodate choices picked from among two sets of possibilities. It can be affixed to an Event Program or other item.

It, like many other LARsponder designs, can be double-sided offering e. To avoid confusion, one side or both can be supplied with e. It accommodates choices signaled by orientations differing in angle by 45 degrees and by which color pairs lie on opposite diagonal, vertical and horizontal axes. These color pairs can be reflective or not shown retro-reflective.

In principle, LARsponders of this general type can provide a large number of choices: in this case, 8 possible orientations times 8 possible choices of obscured color allow 64 possible response choices. A simpler version of obviously could offer e. NOTE: Another useful method of indicating choice in many types of LARsponder designs, for example as above re , is to make an RR an independent item or element made of magnetic sheeting or backed with one or more small adhered magnets and arrange the LARsponder to also have some appropriately positioned ferrous content so the RR element can be stably adhered to it in any desired orientation.

Successful use of large response universes presumably implies a certain level of skill, especially if time constraints are imposed. They can be of various types of cross-sections, circular, square, rectangular, polygonal, faceted and otherwise. This will be discussed further in Section 3c below. The first example is based on a cylindrical tube , in this case of circular cross-section. The exterior of the tube can also be of some distinctive color or colors and can carry 2-D LARcodes not shown.

Although the examples here described use components with unvarying cross-sections e. The tube can be internally lined with some particular color, e. The lining can preferably be retro-reflective RR material. Although the lining color as shown is uniform, the liner or portions of it—e. The tubular structure shields the internal RR from ambient venue lighting to a significant degree.

The distal end of the tube in this example is closed, although in other embodiments it can be partially open or penetrated by structures or devices passive or active to facilitate precise aiming. The plane of the entrance end of the tube need not be orthogonal to the tube central axis. The interior surface of closure is also a retro-reflector but preferably of a color distinctly different from that of the cylindrical liner.

It also can be patterned. Element represents a visual aiming aid for the user. The sequence of views of the front portion of the LARsponders - shows how the shape of the interior liner red RR region and of the green closure RR region and also their ratios—which can serve as an additional and potentially robust pointing indicator will vary with LARsponder pointing angle as seen along the LOS of one particular LARcode Reader when excited e.

Elements , , and illustrate that tube cross-sections other than circular can be used in this general class of LARsponders. Example , with all faces available for coding in distinctive ways, also offers 5-D capabilities as well but its coding surfaces are more exposed to uncontrolled ambient light.

Other possible trigger mechanisms include, but are not limited to such actions as causing momentary gross collapse or distortion of a LARsponder structure or sub-structures , for example, tubular component s with flexible-walls. Hex, square, rectangular cross-sections etc. For a given overall size, bundles have a narrower range of on-target acceptance angles and can display patterns of interior RR wall colors of distal-end RRs providing additional distinctive coding options and data for the LARcode system software including, for example, rotational angle.

Item shows a bundle with an angular cut entrance which widens the range of view angles over which the interior wall color patterns and RRs can be seen by a given LARcode Reader. The shape of the entrance end of the bundle need not be planar. This example can also be used in higher degrees of freedom applications, e. This can be done for competitive purposes or otherwise. Software processing can also be used as the basis of new forms of responses somewhat analogous to swarm, flock and fish-schooling behavior wherein responses direction of motion, velocities, selection points etc.

Please see also Sub-sections 3c-2, 5, 7, and 8 below in this regard. Item depicts a Jumbotron, Diamond Vision, or other large mass audience direct-view or projection digital screen. Perimeter-mounted LARcode Readers are shown. There can be a substantial number of these and they can be aimed along diverging lines of sight to cover user locations in the venue. The latter are positioned in front of the display either near its surface or at distance in front of it.

Light weight and measuring less than a few square inches, these can, for example, be suspended by thin guy-wires which also can carry data and power etc. They can be easily retracted for servicing etc. Their lines-of-sight look outward toward audience areas.

At viewing distances used for mass-audience displays such as Jumbotrons, the Reader heads will be unobtrusive if not essentially invisible. Note that in smaller venues, only auxiliary Readers mounted on perimeters of venue displays should typically be required. It can be remarked that the above concepts, methods, and apparatus which enable high precision aiming, pointing etc. Many other versions are possible. The principles incorporated in this example can be readily combined with or substituted by other LARcode and LARsponder concepts disclosed throughout this document.

Element can be a flat card with 2 diametrically opposite grasping points held between index fingers and thumbs of both hands. The regions, for example, can be monochrome or colored RR Locate regions. Additional LARcodes, designator codes, validation codes, etc. The tab, if exposed, can serve a different function or modify the meaning of the signal.

Merely as one example, the well-known single player video game of steering competing racecars can be converted into a multiple player games. Joy-Stick control of direction of motion, steering precision, velocities, selection points etc. Furthermore, the above aggregation types of processing or others can have dynamic capabilities and can apply adaptive criteria, e. Please also see Paragraph 8 below.

Motions can denote or indicate a desired result such as a change of 3D position of the LARsponder with respect to a defined reference point or by pointing e. Responses can be singular, in short series, continuing, repeated until cued otherwise, or performed against fixed time-limits.

When bettors are forced to look offshore to place bets then the integrity of the bookmaker is harder to establish and in most cases impossible to prosecute should something go wrong. The amount of juice a bookmaker is taking as a commission can vary and finding a book with a smaller juice is always an important consideration for a sports bettor.

Books will also vary the juice depending on the market. For instance the commission on minor league baseball is generally higher than the MLB because its is more challenging to frame accurate odds based on less information available about team selections, player form and so on.

Juice is not an extra charge for a bettor, it is built into the odds. Kiosk — An unmanned station generally in a casino where an individual can place a sports bet. With the advent of legalised sports betting in a growing number of states in the US, kiosks will be required to handle to influx of first time bettors.

While these kiosks are an excellent way to improve the user experience of a sports bettor in a casino or other legalised venue they are no substitute for the ease of mobile and online sports betting seen internationally. Layoff — Refers to sportsbooks betting on an outcome with another bookmaker in order to insure themselves against a potentially costly result.

This is a common occurrence and is all about risk mitigation. An example could be where a sharp places a very large bet on a favorite, the bookmaker then lays off with another sportsbook by placing a smaller stake on the underdog who is at larger odds. This reduces their potential profit but removes the risk of a large loss.

Individual bettors can layoff in the form of hedging which in many ways follows the same principles. Limits — In order to mitigate their own risk betting agencies will often set limits on markets. This means they are limiting the amount an individual can place on one particular market. There are a few reasons why sportsbooks will set a particular limit on an event but the main one is that the event is seen as high risk and could be targeted by sharps. An example is the NFL draft prop bets which have grown in popularity over the last few years.

Sportsbooks will also limit consistently winning bettors as they would prefer them to move their business elsewhere. Being banned by a sportsbook is seen by some as a badge of honor as it may reflect the bettors prowess.

Live Betting — A bet type that is placed after an event has begun. Also known as in-game wagering. The available odds fluctuate as the game ebbs and flows, making the timing of the bet critical. Most bookmakers will accept live bets on high volume markets but their can be restrictions on how the bet can be placed. In Australia for example, where online sports betting in general is quite sophisticated live bets must be placed over the phone or in person at betting kiosks.

This of course, slows down the process of placing the bet, which can mean the value bet opportunity could be lost. There is real skill in being a successful live betting player. An example might be where a bettor always bets a certain team when they are at home, or when they play at night, or after a bye week. The lock bet gets bettors into trouble when they fall in love with a certain condition and stop giving it due consideration.

Long Shot — A team, player or market that seems unlikely to win and therefore has long high odds attributed to them. All bettors dream of landing a few long shots as they are serious bank boosters. The term comes from military parlance where hitting a target from distance had a high degree of difficulty and was rarely successful — the long shot.

Typically when wagering on a long shot sports bettors will reduce risk by investing a smaller stake than usual. The required win or strike rate for profitability on long shots is low depending on how long the odds are hence they have a certain allure to gamblers.

Sadly often the long shots odds are still much shorter than they should be and being profitable long term is highly unlikely. Middle — This is a move used by sophisticated or experienced bettors. An example of this is if a gambler was to wager on an NBA team at Some time after the bet has been placed the line may move to say 8.

If the game was to finish with the favourite winning by 7 or 8 point both bets would win for a very tidy profit. If the result was to miss the middle it is guaranteed that one of the two bets would win and the gambler would return the majority of their stake. The answer, a shot at a risk free bet, which makes it very difficult to go broke! Punting Nirvana! Moneyline — The most popular bet type across many sports books. In the US the moneyline odds are quoted in American but in other jurisdictions they can be listed as decimal or fractional.

Multi Bet — Another name for a parlay, accumulator, combination or all-up bet. Commonly used in Australia which has arguably the most sophisticated online sports betting market in the world. Sportsbooks promote mutlis heavily in those markets as they provide a sizeable edge to the bookmaker. It is named such because of the nickel being worth 5 cents. Online Sports Betting — Also known as mobile sports betting. Refers to the ability to place a bet without going to a betting location in person.

Individuals hold an account with an online sports bookmaker and bets are placed on the run. The ease and convenience increases the user experience for the bettor. In sophisticated sports betting jurisdictions like the UK and Australia much of the betting is done over mobile apps which have all the functionality of an in house bookmaker with immeasurably more convenience. The arrival of this in the US will be a game changer for the entire pro sports landscape.

Parlay — A bet type where a series of wager are linked together or parlayed so that the stake and winnings from the first wager are then placed on the next leg or option in the parlay. The final odds of a parlay are calculated by multiplying the decimal odds of each option together. Parlays are commonly referred to as combination bets Combos , multi-bets multis , accumulators or all-ups.

Prop Bets — Otherwise known as proposition bets. These are an exotic form of betting where wagers are placed in events that occur within the game but are not necessarily linked to the result of the game. They are very common in sports like American Football, Basketball and Baseball where the performance statistics are varied and thorough. For example in the NFL a bettor can wager on Individual player rushing yards, receiving yards or both.

Sportsbooks are ever expanding their prop bet options. Punter — Another name for a bettor or gambler. Used more readily in England, Australia and New Zealand. A term of endearment. Insinuates you know the struggles of gambling but are ready and willing to take on the risk.

All wagered monies are returned to the bettor. The most common time this happens is in spread betting where the score of the game lands exactly on the listed spread. Sportsbooks attempt to eliminate the push by adding a hook or half point to the spread. These are popular with sophisticated bettors who often work systems and do often hit these markets hard when circumstances line up with their system.

Runner — The name given to a person who places bets on behalf of someone else. This is deemed illegal in most jurisdictions. The growth of the sports betting industry in the US should reduce the instances of this as in the past a runner has been required to place bets in vegas for people who live outside of Nevada but looking to wager.. Now that many states are in the process of legalising sports betting to some level, sports bettors should be able to get action without breaking the law.

Sharp — The name given to a sophisticated or smart bettor. They typically bet with a large bankroll and are often quick to target lines, which they deem weak, as soon as they are posted by bookmakers. Many times betting is a source of full time income for a sharp and they are seen as well researched when placing a wager. Their recognised knowledge is useful for bookmakers as they will often adjust, or move, a line immediately after they have accepted a bet from a sharp.

Sharp money is seen a trustworthy guide for betting by recreational bettors but often bookmakers have adjusted odds accordingly before the recreational bettors have jumped on. Square — A common name given to a recreational or average everyday bettor.

Typically they are viewed as long term losing gamblers who tend to bet in an unsophisticated manner. That is they bet without much research, close to game time when markets have already been bet through, with emotion, without finding the best odds and so on. Squares are a target for all sportsbooks as they are seen as low risk clients.

Steam — Refers to the sudden and dramatic move of a line in a sports betting market across multiple bookmakers. The steam is as a result of large volumes of money hitting the same market simultaneously. This is can be a deliberate move by professional gamblers or it can be when a tout, tipping service or handicapper releases information to the betting community and it prompts a flood of money to hit the markets.

They watch the market closely for movements then go with the momentum. This is fraught with danger as the movement may be orchestrated by sharps who move a line then after it moves hit the other side harder. Straight Up — When a bettor wagers on a player or team to win outright regardless of the margin of victory it is called a straight up bet. A bundle of straight up bets is a common way to create a parlay as the bettor can take a combination of favorites and underdogs.

Sophisticated bettors will usually bet a relatively large stake on straight up bets, particularly on the favorite. In other jurisdictions the straight up bet is referred to as a head to head bet. This gives the bettor multiple possible winning combinations. The functionality of the system creates, in a way, a hedge against the original full blown parlay.

The many combinations and permutations are wagered upon creating a series of smaller bets all centred around the same legs as your original parlay. Most online books will offer systems on parlays of between 2 and 8 legs. Common systems types are, trixie, yankee, patent, lucky 15, canadian, lucky 31, heinz, super heinz, and goliath. For all you need to know on systems betting go to our article by clicking here. Teaser — A type of bet that allows the bettor to combine two or more markets and adjust the spread values in their favor in exchange for some loss of odds value.

For example a bettor might bet on the Browns The bettor might receive 4 points to use to adjust either matches spread. If one of the markets loses the entire bet is lost. A teaser is similar to a parlay is many ways. Tout — A person or service that sells tips or picks to recreational gamblers. They are self proclaimed experts and promise a better than average return. The tout is selling their expertise to pick winners much like a stock picker does for at home stock market investors.

Not an exact science and no guarantee of a win. Touts typically tend to focus on the spread betting and the over and under totals markets. Underdog — Refers to the team or player considered by oddsmakers to be the least likely to win a particular event. The underdog status is defined by the moneyline market. The team with the plus money odds is the underdog and the team with the minus odds is the favorite. Betting on the underdog is a strategy employed by many gamblers due to the increased payout and lower win rate required to be profitable.

In an effort to minimize risk sports books will often not look to win from a particular side in a bet but instead have even amounts of money bet on boths sides and gain a profit from the vig. More often than not they are to meaning 1. The art in this for the sportsbook is to ensure that as close to possible an even amount of money has come in for both sides. Welch — To welch on a bet is to not pay off when bet loses. This is alway a risk when bettors use credit to place bets.

The use of credit is a huge risk and is not recommended.

Всё sports betting in usa эта

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Adding and Subtracting Mixed Fractions A. Print Open Teacher Student. Math Worksheets. Volgar Astrakhan - Veles Moscow. Al-Hilal - Khaleej Sart. Olympique de Bej - Sfaxien. Doxa Dramas - Panahaiki Ionikos - Apollon Larissa. Levadiakos - Ierapetra. ASD Bra - Gozzano. Breno - Real Calepina. Campodarsego - Chions. Trestina - Grassina. Follonica Gavorr - Montevarchi Calc. Montespaccato - Tiferno Lerchi. Trastevere Calci - Foligno Calcio. Montegiorgio - Giulianova. Recanatese - Fiuggi. Notaresco - Castelfidardo.

US Tolentino - Agnonese. Insieme Formia - Monterosi FC. US Bitonto - Puteolana. Picerno - Sorrento F. Taranto Sport - Citta di Fasano. Messina - Marina di Ragusa. Rotonda - Gelbison Cilento. Paganese - Catania. CSD Antofagasta - O. AJ Auxerre - Marseille. Bordeaux - Toulouse. Grenoble - Monaco. Nantes - Lens. Strasbourg - Montpellier.

Khimki - FC Astana Borgosesia - Legnano. Saluzzo - Arconatese. Onze Bravos - Primeiro de Agos. Padova - Carpi. Llapi Podujeve - KF Ballkani. Tulevik Viljandi - Levadia Tallinn. Linense - UD Marbella. FC Viktoria Plze - Prepere. Ferretti U20 - Esteli U Domzale - Maribor. Amiens - Metz. Stade Brestois - Rodez Aveyron. Nimes - Nice. Burgos CF - Valladolid Prome. Cultural Leonesa - Sporting de Gijo. Pontevedra - CD Guijuelo. Oviedo B - CD Covadonga.

Pogon Szczecin - Piast Gliwice. Kalmar - Oskarshamns AIK. SC Znojmo - Svratka Brno. Fremad Amager - Sonderjyske. PAOK - Lamia. Racing Genk - Sint Truiden. Ciervos - Inter Playa Del. Azores de Hidalg - Uruapan. Rijeka - Hajduk Split. Servette - St. Kalju - FC Flora Tallinn. Trenkwalder Admi - Rheindorf Altach.

SKN St. Swansea City - Manchester City. Galatasaray - Alanyaspor. Bayern Munchen - Zwickau. Kilmarnock - Motherwell. Dijon - Lille. Maccabi Tel Aviv - Hapoel Hadera. Nova Iguacu - America-RJ. Guarany CE - Barbalha. Pacajus - Caucaia.

Maccabi Haifa - Hapoel Haifa. Reading - Brentford.

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Mixed Fractions,Mathematics,Std.4

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